Refined sugar is the most popular form of sugar in North America and Europe. It can be made by purifying raw beet sugar through carbonation. The carbonation process involves the introduction of limewater and carbon dioxide gas into the sugar beet juice. This results in the formation of calcium carbonate which causes the impurities in the juice to precipitate.
In the final stage of purification, activated carbon is used to give refined sugar its bright white colour.2 (Although too much sugar damages our pearly whites). Depending on the size and shape of the crystals, refined sugar may be called by different names such as castor, powdered, or decorating sugar.